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Human disease USEFUL

In English

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Will Reay

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Dexamethasone and betamethasone have a longer half life due to what


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902 questions
Glucocorticoid uses outside of dentistry
Allergies- (Allergic rhinitis) and (Dermatitis/eczema)
Uses of glucocorticoids in dentistry
Oral ulceration- denture induced trauma (not used for hepetic ulcers)
RISKS with chronic GC
Infection risk
Anti immunomodulators examples--
MAb- adalimumab and cetrolizumab
Paraneoplastic syndrome can cause
Cushings- lungs produce ACTH like compound
Define cachexia
TNF produced causes fat mobilisaiton and loss of apetite
Where does leukemia originate
Bone marrow red blood cells
NSAID examples
Ibuprofen Diclofenac Naproxen  Piroxicam  Aspirin  Paracetamol  Celecoxi
COX-2 is found in
Inflammatory cells
NSAID effects
Analgesia-absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
Uses In dentistry of NSAIDs
Temporary relief of mild/moderate detnal pain or inflammation 1-7 days
Contraindication for NSAIDs
Empty stomach ibuprofen
Why is aspirin irreversible
COX is blocked permanently as no nucleus
Paracetamol effects
Analgesic and antipyretic but poor anti-inflammatory
Mural thrombi
Not fully occluded
Occluding thrombi
Fully occluded
Reduced blood supply to a tissue or organ
Death of tissue due to ischaemia
MI types
Transmural most common
Posterior myocardial infarction is due to
Thrombosis of right coronary artery
Gangrene is
Tissue necrosis plus added bacterial infection
Replacement of one cell type for another
Disordered cell growth due to an accumulation of non lethal mutuations
Mass or swelling
Abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds as is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of stiumuli which evoked the change
Neoplasm which is localised and cannot spread
A neoplasm which can invade and destroy adjacent structures and spread to distant sites
Spread of cancer to a distal site
Driver mutations
Push cells to malignant phenotype
Passenger mutations
Are inconsequential
Classification of neoplasms
Behaviour- benign or malignant
Bone pain may prelude
Metastatic deposits
Where T-cells invade host tissues
Hemicholinium- no clin. uses mechanism
Competitive inhibitor of the choline carrier
Vesamicol works by
Preventing storage of ACh (via vesicular ACh transporter)
Bottulin used to treat
Salivary dlrooling
Neostigmine and physostigmine are-
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Suxamenthonium works by
Agonising nicotinic receptors over two sub parts of the receptor which desensitises the receptors cauisng paralsysis
What are butylcholinesterases
Non specific cholinesterases
Complication with suxamenthonium
Is broken down by butrycholinesterases some individuals genetically lack this systemic enzyme meaning suxamenthoniuma has a paralysising effect
What are galantamine and rivastigimine
Nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligands
Decarmethonium is selective for
Nicotinic skeletal muscle
Antimuscarinics work via
Inhibition of parasympathetic nervous system
Pirenzepine is used to
Decrease gut motility and secretions
Why is atropine given presurgery
Decreases secretions therefore decreasing AChEI side effects
Oxybutynin is used for
Urinary incontinence
What is vasculitis
Inflammation of the blood vessel wall
What is an aneurysm
Bulge in a blood vessel that is weaker than the blood vessel
What is angina
Lack of O2 to the heart but no necrosis of heart tissue
What is critical stenosis
At least in 75% reduction in vessel size which cant be compensated for by vasodilation
What is sarcoidosis
Where inflammatory cells clump together to make a clump of cells forming a granuloma
What is stenosis
Failure of the valve to open completely
What is valve incompetence
Failure to close fully blood flows in reverse
Volume problems
Renal impairment- diuretics
Blood composition issues
Anaemia, immune, anticoagulants
Stroke volume is determined by
Ventricular sympathetic activity and EDV
Issues with SAN signal generation include
Alternate pacemkaers (ectopic)
Class II antirhymics are
Beta blockers e.g. propanol (Beta 1 and 2) atenolol B1
What can be used to treat sinus bradycardia and how does the drug work
Atropine works by blocking chollinergic PNS receptors
How do class 1 antirhymics works
Extend the refractory period by locking fast sodium channels
Class III antirhymics work by
Slowing down repolarisation
Class IV antiarrhythmics work by
Slowing down conduction through the AVN
Nifedipine and verapamil work by
Blocking L-type calcium channel conduction