# Psychology

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🇬🇧 | 🇬🇧 |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Ethical issues | -Consent (informed/presumptive) - Confidentiality - Withdrawal -Protection -Debrief -Deception |

Data analysis | - Quantitative ( numerical, compare) -Qualitative (words rich in detail) -primary ( you) -secondary (pre-existing) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Sampling methods | -Random (s= all target pop = equal chance w= withdrawal) -Opportunity (s=quick + convenient w= biased - generalise results) - Selfselected/ Volunteer( s= small chance of withdrawal w=not likely to be representative ) -Snowball (S= easy to find ppts W= unrepresentative) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Self report methods | - Questionnaires ( s= quick and cost efficient , w= misinterpretation) - Interviews ( s= build a relationship - honesty w= prejudices , interpersonal variables ) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Types of questions in a questionnaire | - Open(s= qual so valid/rich info w=comparison) - closed (quan so comparison w= validity/reflection) - rating scale (quan/analyse w= central t bias) -Likert scale (same as ^^) - Semantic differential scale ( s= insightful w= interpretation and ct bias) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Types of interviews | - structured( set questions, pre determined order ) - semi structured ( set questions with follow up q's) - unstructured (clear but no set questions , talk freely) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

Types of data measurements | - Nominal ( discrete categories ( eye colour) -Ordinal ( values that can't be ordered - rating scale) - Interval ( equal intervals - marks ) |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

What is the independent variable? | You manipulate it - the conditions |

What is the dependent variable ? | The behaviour your measuring |

What is the extraneous variable? | Other variables that affect the DV |

How do you operationalise a variable? | Quantifying / measuring the dv - iv = groups |

Types of extraneous variables and how to control them | Participant variable - sampling (random/ snowballing) - experimental (matched/repeated measures ) -Situational variable - standardised approach / same -Experimenter variable -randomisation and double blind |

State the experimental hypothesis | - There will be a significant difference in (DV) between (IV1 and ( IV2) |

Difference between one tailed and two tailed | One tailed = direction Two tailed = no direction null = no difference |

Types of experimental method | - Lab - carefully controlled s= manipulate iv w= deception -Field - natural environment s= eco valid w= hard to control ev's -Quasi - pre existing s= iv natural occurs w= can't replicate |

Types of experimental design | - Independent measures (2 groups compared) -s= no demand c's or order effects w=participant variables / twice as many pptts - Repeated measures (induvial compared from one condition to the other) - s=participant variables removed w=demand characteristics/order effects - Matched pair design ( matched characteristics to the other group ) -s= no order effects/ ppts variables reduced w= difficult/ time consuming |

Types of of observational methods | - Participant - Non participant - Structured -Un structured -Naturalistic -Controlled -Covert -Overt |

Observational methods | - Time sampling ( set intervals / time to record/ not all behaviours will be recorded) -Event sampling ( every time it occurs / inter-rater reliability/ hard to record all behaviours at once) |

Questions to remember to see if something is reliable | -same thing ? - standardised ? - fair ? - consistency ? |

Validity questions to ask your self | -genuine ? - accuracy ? -internal - intend to measure ? - external - generalise findings to other things ? |

Types of internal validity | - Face validity ( face value) - Criterion validity ( predictive) -Concurrent validity ( same scores/data) - Construct validity ( measures the actual things ) |

Types of external validity | -Ecological validity (generalise to settings/places) -Population validity ( representative ) |

Format to structure answers | P. oint E. xplain C. ontext |

Correlation Methods | Relationship between two variables |

Correlation scale | -1 to -0.5 = strong n -0.5 to 0 = weak n o to 0.5 = weak p 0.5 to 1= strong p |

For a 15 marker what is the structure | How would you implement + context justify why + context (strenghs) Own experience |

What is a type 1 error | False positive incorrectly rejecting the null |

What is a type 2 error | False negative incorectly accepting the null |

Central tendency measures | Mean mode median |

What are measures of dispersion | Range, variance, standard deviation, |

When it asks for conclusions what does it mean | The conlcusions from the findings |

What is a non parametric test | Doesn’t fit a normal population Equal variance Interval data |

Respect | Informed consent Confidentiality Withdrawal |

Integrity | Deception |

Responsibility | Protection of participants Debrief |

Competence | Awareness of professional ethics Stay within your field |

Induction | The theory creates a test like to prove it |

Deduction | The testing makes a theory |

Chi square conditions | Nominal and independent |

Binomial (nominal) | Nominal and repeated |

Man whitney | Ordinal/interval and independent |

Wilcoxon | Repeated and ordinal / interval |

Spearmans's | Relationships (speared heart= relationships) |

Calculating Chi square | - add total of rows for each column - row tot x column tot / overall tot = expected frequency - add your data to your equation -use number for critical value table by no of df by doing number of row/s column -1 times each other SIGNIFICANT = GREATER THAN |

Binomial sign test | - label the flow of direction + or - (yes to no = +) - count the no of + or -'s -the smallest of these scores is calculated value - the critcal value is the no of directions - SIGNIFICANT = LESS THAN |

Manwhitney (multi) | - rank all columns together (MULTIPLE RANKNG) - add up the ranks for each column -use the formula for which ever column has the smallest ranking - significant = LESS THAN |

Wilcoxon | - work out the differences between the columns by takinf second column - first column - rank the order of differences ignoring the sign -count how many - or + - least frequent sign = add up the ranks = observed value critical value = no of differences significant = LESS THAN |

Spearmans s= seperate | Rank separately/ individual find differences between ranks square the differences applt to formula significance = greater than |

Background for pillavin | Bystanders apathy - lack of concern, interest or enthusiasm to help diffusion of responsibility - people are less likely to help when others are present so the responsibility is shared Pluralistic ignorance - people can be misled by the bhv of others in an emergency situations |

Background for pillavin | Bystanders apathy - lack of concern, interest or enthusiasm to help diffusion of responsibility - people are less likely to help when others are present so the responsibility is shared Pluralistic ignorance - people can be misled by the bhv of others in an emergency situations |

Milgram's participants | 40 males (20-50) New Haven |

What type of sampling was Milgram's study | Volunteering thought the study was on memory |

Aim of Milgram's study | What level of obedience would be shown with an authority figure |

What is a summary of the procedure for M's | Yale university - prestigous setting Participants met and drew would be the teacher/learner The learned strapped mr wallace to the shock generator and learner was told to read word pairs that mr wallace had to respond to. Wrong answer = shock. 15v to 450v at 300 he showed severe distress and learner was prodded to continue |

Results for M's | 65% to 450 v 100% to 300v displays of nervous laughter digging fingers into hand 3 had a seizure |

Evaluation for miligram | S- high control so increased validity and they geniunely believed so no demand characterisitcs both qual and quan W- deception |

Behaviour is measured by | Observational methods |

Participants on Pillavin | Train passengers racial composition 45% black and 55% white = 4450 men and women |

The aim of the Pillavin study | Investigate factors that affect people's action of helping |

Procedure for pil | Victim condition- sober/drunk /ill victim race- black or white Model position- critical area / adjacent area Model timing - 70 seconds or 150 seconds cr 70 cr 150 ad 70 ad 150 |

Background for Miligram | Nazi's following Hitler |

Results for pillavin | More male helpers( 90%) 65% HELPed were white women said it s for men to help him 95% helped |

Pillavin Evaluation | Cost reward model eco valid large sample size - generalise debrief/deception |

Background for Pillavin (p=preston=train) | Kitty genovese - stabbed infront of a block of flats bystanders apathy , pilustic ignorance,diffusion of responsibility |

Levine aim | What affects helping |

Levine method | Quasi experiment iv was naturally occuring |

Levine's participants | 1198 - 23 different countries - |

Procedure for Levine | 1. dropped pen 2. hurt leg 3.blind person crossing the road particpinats had to pass a prederminded line to be recorded |

Community variables for levine | Population size and pace of life |

Results FOR L | Rio- brazils -1st Kuala lampur - malaysia -last |

Levine evaluation | S- eco v w- reliability |

Bochiaro b=blower whistle blower | 8 pilot studies in ansterdam |

Pptps bochiaro | 92 in 8 pilot and 149 in main university of Amsterdam |

Bochiaro vs miligram | More ethical shows an authority figure doesn't always have an affect on obedience |

Procedure boc | Sensory deprivation asked to write a letter to convince the reseach comittee left 3 mins alone to think 7 mins for the task wrote= obedient refused = diso reported =wb given two personality tests of HEXACO AND DECOMPOSED GAMES |

Results for boc | 9.4% wb BUT 37.3% EXPECTED 76.5% were obedient personality test shows no sig dif |

Background for pillavin | Bystanders apathy - lack of concern, interest or enthusiasm to help diffusion of responsibility - people are less likely to help when others are present so the responsibility is shared Pluralistic ignorance - people can be misled by the bhv of others in an emergency situations |

What is the cost reward model in pillavin | In emergencies bystanders are emotionally aroused arousal can be increased by empathy being close to the siutation , self blame or decreased by leaving the scene or danger you weigh up the rewards and costs of helping |

Loftus and Palmer background | Eyewitnesses |

Cognitive area is measured by | Lab experiments |

Experiment 1 lftp | 45 student university of washington 5 verbs - smashed , collided,bumped,hit,contacted, how fast they were and the perception of the verb |

Resuls lftp ex 1 | 40.8-smashed contacted -31.8 |

Lftp ex2 | Smashed glass 150 students 4s of car accidents |

Explanation of results sc | One memory - reconstructive hypothesis |

Grant aim | Context depending memory |

Grant ppts | 39 participants opportunity sample |

Grant summary | Matching contect - silent - s -n n-n s-n n-s on psychoimmunology tested with short answer recall 10 multiple choice 16 condition - headphones |

Grant results | Matching context lead to better results but you can't replicate real exam conditions |

What makes psychology a science | - quan data -replicable -high control |