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Child With a Physical and Mental Disorder (CH 32)

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Child With a Physical and Mental Disorder (CH 32)


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What is the third leading cause of death in ages 10 to 19?


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Child With a Physical and Mental Disorder (CH 32) - Details



302 questions
List some environmental factors contributing to congenital heart defects
Intrauterine rubella exposure Maternal alcoholism Diabetes Advanced maternal age Maternal drug ingestion
List some genetic factors contributing to the development of congenital heart defects:
Sibling or parent with CHD Chromosomal anomalies Other noncardiac congenital anomalies
The four CHD categories are related to:
Increased pulmonary blood flow Decreased pulmonary blood flow Obstruction to systemic blood flow Mixed blood flow
Tetralogy of Fallot involves four defects:
1. Pulmonary stenosis 2. VSD 3. Right ventricular hypertrophy 4. Overriding aorta
List 3 iron-rich foods:
Red meat Legumes Iron-fortified cereals
How is anemia defined?
A decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin, or both
What are the two classifications of anemia?
Hypoproliferative (defective production of erythrocytes) Hemolytic (premature destruction of erythrocytes)
What are signs of mild to moderate anemia?
Irritability Weakness Decreased play activity Fatigue
What are the clinical signs of a hemoglobin below 5 g/dL?
Anorexia Skin pallor Pale mucous membranes Glossitis Spoon fingernails Inability to concentrate Tachycardia Systolic murmurs
What are some precipitating factors causing the sickling of erythrocytes?
Infection Fever Hypoxemia Dehydration High altitudes Cold Emotional stress
Name the three types of sickle cell crisis:
1. Vasoocclusive 2. Sequestration 3. Aplastic
What is the only potential cure for sickle cell disease?
Bone marrow or stem cell transplantation
Which gender is the carrier of hemophilia?
Transmitted by female carriers
What does RICE stand for?
Rest Ice Compression Elevation
What are usually the first signs of ITP?
Ecchymosis and petechial rash (usually over bony prominences)
Which three problems develop as a result of the overproduction and accumulation of immature WBC's?
1. Decrease in RBC production 2. Neutropenia leads to infection 3. Decrease in platelets, causing bleeding
What is often the first symptom of leukemia?
Anemia with pallor and fatigue
What is the route of choice for CNS prophylaxis?
Intrathecally (directly into cerebrospinal fluid)
Why does HIV target T helper lymphocytes?
They have more CD4+ receptors on their surface than any other cell
How is JIA characterized?
Chronic inflammation of the synovium with joint effusion
What is the disadvantage of using DMARD's?
Increased chance of infection
What do TNF blockers do?
Reduce pain, morning stiffness, and joint swelling
What are the disadvantages of TNF blockers?
Increased risk of infection Increased chance of lymphoma or other cancer
What are two examples of TNF blockers?
Etanercept (Enbrel) adalimumab (Humira)
What is respiratory distress caused by?
A deficiency of surfactant
How is exogenous pulmonary surfactant administered?
Endotracheal tube directly into the lungs
How should the infant with RDS be positioned?
On the side with head in alignment
Frequent suctioning increases the risk for:
Bronchospasm Infection Pneumothorax Hypoxia Increased intracranial pressure
SIDS is often associated with which factors?
Premature birth Low birth weight Multiple births CNS and respiratory dysfunctions
What does postmortem examination reveal in an infant with SIDS?
Pulmonary edema and intrathoracic hemorrhages